Volume 4

Volume 4 Issue 1 (2020)

Download individual articles by clicking their respective titles. 

1. “International Financial Institutions and Indonesia’s Water Sector: Roles, Strategies and Future Direction”

Author: Jamie Jisoo Lee

Affiliation: Johns Hopkins University SAIS

Publication Year: 2020

Source: Seoul National University Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 4 (1), Pages 1 – 16

Document Type: Academic Essay

Keywords: The World Bank, The Asian Development Bank, The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, SDGs, Water, Indonesia

Abstract“Development projects are delivered through various institutions and organizations in different regions. The roles of the International Financial Institutions or Multilateral Development Banks are especially critical in filling the financial and technical resource gaps in development projects around the world. This paper examines the roles and strategies of the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank in improving the water sector in Indonesia by analyzing a case study of a water project by each bank. This paper particularly focuses on the water sector in Indonesia because it is one of the largest loan recipients by all three banks and it has experienced a severe water crisis. Additionally, the global water issue is recognized by the international community as a major health issue and the United Nations included “Clean Water and Sanitation” as Goal 6 of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in 2015. Therefore, it is important to look at how the banks’ missions intertwine with the SDGs. The key findings conclude that all banks adopted people-oriented policies and country-specific strategies in implementing projects to maximize social and environmental protection, as well as capacity building programs for the government. Lastly, this study recommends an emphasis on an active partnership among the banks, promotion of private-public partnerships, and clear documentation of the banks’ SDG contribution.”

2. “A Review of The Price of Aid: The Economic Cold War in India”

Author: Marc Reyes

Publication Year: 2020

Source: Seoul National University Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 4 (1), Pages 17 – 23

Document Type: Book Review

3. “The Economics of Climate Migration – An Untold Story”

Author: So Youn Kim

Affiliation: University of Waterloo (Balsillie School of International Affairs)

Publication Year: 2020

Source: Seoul National University Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 4 (1), Pages 24 – 36

Document Type: Academic Essay

Keywords: Climate change, climate migration, economics of climate change, Saharan Africa

Abstract: “This paper examines if there is a link between climate migration and worsening economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa; whether climate migration is considered a negative externality; and what the implications for vulnerable populations are. In Part I, issues of terminology and definitions of climate refugees and development are discussed. In Part II, to capture the contextual reality, a case from Sub-Saharan Africa is studied. The case study proves that climate migration negatively affects economic growth in the region, exacerbated by pre-existing regional conditions including weak economies and climate-sensitive agricultural industries. Since climate migration can happen both internally and internationally, Part III offers policy recommendations for three main audiences: states of origin, host states, and the international community. While climate migration can have uncertain impacts on all sides, it can be concluded that absorption and resettlement issues are directly related to the capacity and condition of host states. This capacity includes general economic conditions, the nature of the labor market, the ability to ease cultural and language differences, and the particular demographic context of the country. We hope that this research study is useful as a guide for many Sub-Saharan African countries, other developing states, host states, and the international community.”

4. “Reintegration of Gender-Based Sexual Violence Survivors in Post-Conflict Reconstruction Settings”

Author: Agathe Malardel and ShinHye Park

Publication Year: 2020

Source: Seoul National University Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 4 (1), Pages 37 – 62

Document Type: Research Paper

Keywords: Gender-based sexual violence, gender approach, reintegration, empowerment, awareness-raising and advocacy

Abstract: “This research paper focuses on the reintegration of gender-based sexual violence (thereafter GBSV) survivors in the post-conflict reconstruction efforts by using a gender approach framework. The three dimensions of gender approach to reconstruction theorized by Zuckerman and Greenberg suggest that a successful and encompassing reconstruction can be ensured by having women-focused programs, gender mainstreaming and transformation of gender roles. Stigmatization, marginalization and psychological and physical issues following sexual violence hinder the proper reintegration of GBSV survivors. Structural and institutional violence and the cultural values are the root causes of stigmatization and ostracization of survivors. By correlating those causes with the three dimensions of the gender approach, this research paper introduces and analyzes three existing programs focusing on the reintegration of GBSV victims; those are the Trust Fund for Victims, the Centre Koko in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and the Women’s Advocacy Network in Uganda. These cases showcase that utilizing gender approach is an effective tool for a better reconstruction of GBSV survivors in post-conflict settings. An analysis of these cases can put forward three main factors for successful integration of GBSV survivors. The first factor is the long-term economic empowerment through training and the creation of outcome-generating opportunities. Secondly, the sensitization and awareness-raising campaigns play a major role in transforming existing mindsets and values. The last factor is the creation of a support and solidarity network which allows the social reintegration. These three factors also encourage women as agents of change, which strongly strengthen the reintegration.”

5. “Constructivism and Realism and the Crucial Nature of Security: ASEAN and Myanmar (1991-2012)”

Author: Ludovica Marchi

Publication Year: 2020

Source: Seoul National University Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 4 (1), Pages 63 – 81

Document Type: Research Paper

Keywords: ASEAN, regional actor, security challenges, foreign policy analysis, Myanmar, China

Abstract: “This research aims to explore constructivist and realist perspectives regarding the Association of Southeast Asian Nations’ (ASEAN) three, distinct, security oriented policies on Myanmar from 1991 to 2012. Close reading of recent literature on the security challenges in Southeast Asia reveals space for the present research. Applying constructivist and realist perspectives, this article explores ASEAN’s Myanmar policies, which may be grouped and designated as a balance of power policy, policy of communication, and ASEAN’s policy of restructuring itself. Analysis shows that the most important dimension of ASEAN’s actions concerning Myanmar was the pursuit and maintenance of security in the region. This investigation ultimately encourages other researchers to consider ASEAN’s interactions with countries in the region, or to implement a different methodology, and confirm, supplement, or disprove the present findings.”

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